Boeing (official name in English: The Boeing Company ) is an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturer. Its head office is located in Chicago, Illinois and its largest factory in Everett, near Seattle in Washington state. This aircraft manufacturer specializes in the design of civil aircraft, but also in military aeronautics, helicopters as well as in satellites and launchers with its Boeing Defense, Space & Security division. In 2012, it ranks second in sales of military equipment worldwide. This company is waging a commercial war with its main competitor, the European group Airbus Commercial Aircraft.
Boeing knows in 2019 and 2020 an industrial disaster with the 737 Max, flight ban, several hundred aircraft grounded following two accidents leaving no survivor, which notably causes its production to stop, the departure of CEO Dennis Muilenburg, losses estimated at several billion dollars for the company, and a significant drop in sales to the profit of his European rival.
The company was born on July 15, 1916thanks to his two fathers William E. Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt and is baptized "B&W". Shortly after, his name became "Pacific Aero Products", and finally "Boeing Airplane Company".
In 1917, with the entry into the war of the United States, the Navy ordered 50 Model C training seaplanes, the first order from Boeing. In 1923 Boeing manufactured a Model 40A postal transport aircraft and in 1927 it won a contract to provide the San Francisco - Chicago airmail link.
Boeing then created "Boeing Air Transport" to take care of its air transport activities. During the first year, nearly 2,000 passengers were transported and we then began to create planes specially designed for passenger transport, this is how the Model 80 was launched. In the years that followed, Boeing began to acquire many aircraft, engine, and airline manufacturing companies, and in 1929 Boeing changed its name to United Aircraft and Transport Corporation.
In 1934, Boeing became a large company manufacturing planes, engines, transporting postal mail, dealing with airports and operating numerous airlines. But, under the pressure of an anti-trust law prohibiting manufacturers from operating airlines, its creators sold their shares and "United Aircraft and Transport" was split into three entities:
United Airlines, responsible for air transportation
United Aircraft, responsible for manufacturing in the east of the country
Boeing Airplane Company, responsible for manufacturing in the west of the country.
The Boeing Plant 2 production site went into service from 1936 to the 1970s
Shortly thereafter, an agreement with Pan American World Airways was signed to develop and produce a commercial seaplane capable of carrying passengers on transatlantic routes. The Boeing 314 Clipper made its first flight in June 1938. It was the largest civilian aircraft of its time, it could carry 90 passengers on day flights and 40 passengers on night flights. A year later, the first commercial line from the United States to the United Kingdom was inaugurated. Other air routes were opened that operated the Boeing 314.
In 1938, Boeing put the 307 Stratoliner into service; it was the first pressurized cabin transport aircraft; it was able to fly at a cruising altitude of 20,000 feet, so above most weather disturbances, making it the most resilient aircraft in the Boeing fleet.
During the Second World War, Boeing built a large number of B-17 and B-29 bombers. Many of the workers were women whose husbands had gone to war.
Acquisitions during the 1990s
In response to the concentration movement in the American defense industry initiated by its competitor Lockheed in 1995, Boeing acquired in August 1996 space and defense activities of Rockwell International for $ 3.2 billion. Rockwell was notably the manufacturer of the 7 American space shuttles ( Enterprise, Pathfinder, Columbia, Atlantis, Endeavor, Discovery and Challenger ).
Then, Boeing bought the number 2 defense equipment McDonnell Douglas, for 13 billion dollars in August 1997. McDonnell Douglas was, in particular, the manufacturer of the Delta launchers.
In 1999, the aircraft manufacturer Boeing sold 620 aircraft. In 2004, deliveries fell to 285 aircraft. It is surpassed by its European competitor Airbus in orders since 2002 and in deliveries since 2004.
In 2003, two Boeing officials were imprisoned for corruption offenses.
In 2005in a record market, the firm announces 1,005 orders (including 569 B737, 235 B787, and 154 B777) again exceeded by Airbus by fifty aircraft. At the end of 2005, the order book included 1,809 aircraft available for the next 7 years, including 290 aircraft in 2005, and a forecast of 395 aircraft in 2006 and 445 aircraft in 2007. The group's turnover is $ 55 billion in 2005 for a profit of 2.60 billion dollars. The new B 787 is a commercial success, it claims at the end of 2005, 291 firm orders and 88 purchase intentions from 27 companies. Its production should start in mid-2007 for entry into service scheduled for 2008. If its success is confirmed, some analysts anticipate supply disruptions from certain suppliers and production rate problems,
Boeing again became the world's leading aircraft manufacturer in 2006 with 1,044 orders compared to 824 for Airbus.
Boeing delivered 481 commercial aircraft in 2009 , an increase of 28% from 2008 9 . The still-popular Boeing 737 among airlines continues its reign with 372 deliveries, 88 deliveries for the Boeing 777, 13 deliveries for the Boeing 767 and 8 deliveries for the Boeing 747. The Boeing order book is now 3,375 aircraft, including 2,076 Boeing 737.
In March 2011, Boeing entered into an agreement with two Chinese air carriers for a total of 43 aircraft totaling around 10 billion US dollars . Air China plans to buy 5 aircraft of the Boeing 747-8 10 type and Hong Kong Airlines to acquire 38 aircraft, including 6 cargo models and 30 Boeing Dreamliner 11 series. If the agreement is approved by the Chinese government, the delivery of the devices for this new 747 model is planned between 2014 and 2015.
In November 2011, Boeing signed an order to produce "50 long-haul 777 aircraft for $ 18 billion [US] from the airline Emirates " 12 . A few days later, it obtained another contract from Lion Air which "will acquire 230 Boeing 737 medium-haul aircraft for nearly 22 billion [Americans], including 201 737 MAX".
In 2014, Boeing achieved the best commercial performance in its history with 1,432 net orders and the delivery of 723 civil aircraft 14 .
In September 2016, Boeing signed an agreement with Morocco in order to create an "industrial ecosystem" in the kingdom 15 .
In November 2016, Boeing announced a restructuring of its defense branch with the elimination of 500 positions, the closure of 2 factories in El Paso and Newington (en) and the displacement of 2,000 employees. After reducing the workforce of its aeronautical section by 8% in 2016, the Boeing technicians and engineers union announced in early March 2017 that 1,880 members in the Seattle area had accepted a voluntary departure.
In 2017, Boeing entered into a billion-dollar, 30-year contract with Dassault Systèmes . This contract relates to the use of 3Dexperience software and aims to "modernize the production system" 18 . In October 2017, Boeing acquired the company Aurora, specializing in autonomous flights.
In May 2018, Boeing announced the acquisition of KLX, an American aeronautical equipment supplier, for $ 3.2 billion, in addition to a debt recovery of $ 1 billion.
In July 2018, Boeing announced the creation of a joint venture with Embraer , the latter bringing assets combining its activities in civil aviation valued at $ 4.75 billion, while Boeing will bring assets of around $ 3.8 billion. This joint venture will be 80% owned by Boeing. The amount invested by Boeing is not disclosed. This agreement excludes Embraer's military activities, as well as its private jet activities.
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